Adolescents Drug Abuse: The Biopsychosocial Motivations Andtherapeutic Community Intervention—A Qualitative Study of Three Former Drug Addicts

Ho Yee Sen, PhD

Abstract


This study investigates why adolescents use and abuse drugs by assessing the primary factors in the Bio-psychosocial (BPS) Model.  From one-to-one, in-depth interviews with three participants, the findings of this study support the supposition that drug abuse is deeply imbedded in the family and peer functioning and relationships.  Impaired psychological development from childhood experiences due to family conflicts and crises is likely the key factor that predisposes adolescents to drug use.  Peers socialisation and activities, and easy accessibility of drugs are co-enablers.  Curiosity, favourable attitude towards drug use and the lack of awareness of drug use consequences are the motivational antecedents for experimentation with drugs.  An interesting finding is that the ‘mystique’ and fascination surrounding song lyrics and rock music can be a threshold to drug initiation. This research also investigates the conditions that contribute to drug use cessation amongst drug addicts in a therapeutic community (TC) intervention. Drug use cessation is a result of individual commitment to the recovery process.  The reparative self-worth through knowing God and the care and love of the people in a community operated as healing balms during rehabilitation.  Several implications for both research and practitioners are derived in this study.


Keywords


Drug abuse; Adolescents; Therapeutic Community Intervention; Bio psychosocial; Qualitative Research.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bandura, A. 1977. Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Barnes, G. M. Farrell, M. P., & Cairnes, A. 1986. Parental socialization factors and adolescent drinking behaviours. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 27-36.

Barnes, G.M., & Farrell, M.P. 1992. Parental support and control as predictors of adolescent drinking, delinquency, and related problem behaviors. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 54, 763-776

Bohman, M., Sigvardsson, S., & Colninger, R. 1981. Maternal inheritance of alcohol abuse: Cross-fostering analysis of adopted women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 965-969.

Burkett, S. R. 1977. Religion, parental influence and adolescent alcohol and marijuana use. Journal of Drug Issues, 7(3), 263-273.

Choo, P. F., Navaratnam, V., & Ward, C. 1982. A comparative analysis of the psychological profile of drug using and non-using populations. Penang National Research Drug Centre.

Cohen, P. R. 1989. Promoting recovery and preventing relapse in chemically dependent adolescents. In P. B. Henry (Ed.), Practical approaches in treating adolescent chemical dependency: A guide to clinical assessment and intervention (pp. 205-238). New York: Haworth.

Creswell, J.W. 2003. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd edn.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Doweiko, H. E. 1999. Concepts of chemical dependency (4th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Duffin, M. 2006. Drugs and Alcohol: Understanding the Perceptions of Young People. Community Safety Journal [online]. Brighton, 5(1), 37. Retrieved October 8, 2007:http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1037369511&sid=2&fmt=38&clientld=16428&RQT=309&VNAME=PQD

Ferguson, D. M., Woodward, L.J., & Horwood, L. J. 1999. Childhood peer relationship problems and young people’s involvement with deviant peers in adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 27 (5), 357.

Finke, L., Williams, J., Ritter, M., Kemper, D. 2002. Survival against drugs: Education for school-age children. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 15(4), 163.

Fowler, T., Lifford, K., Shelton, K., Rice, F., Thapar, A., Neale, M.C., McBride, A.,& Marianne, B.M. 2007. Exploring the relationship between genetic and environmental influences on initiation and progression of substance use. Research report. Addiction. Abingdon: 102 (3), 413.

Franz, C., McClelland, D., & Weinberger, J. 1991. Childhood antecedents of conventional social accomplishment in midlife adults: A 36-year prospective study. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 33, 66-76.

Glantz, M. D., & Hartel, C. R. 1999. Drug abuse: Origin & Interventions. USA: American Psychological Association

Griswold-Ezekoye, S. 1986. The multicultural model in chemical abuse prevention and intervention. In S. Griswold-Ezekoye, K. L. Kumpfer, & W. J. Bukoski (eds), Childhood and chemical abuse: Prevention and intervention (pp. 203-229). New York: Haworth.

Johnson, J. L. 2004. Fundamentals of Substance Abuse Practice. Canada: Thomson Brooks/Cole

Johnson, V., & Padina, R. J. 1991. Effects of the family environment on adolescent substance use, delinquency, and coping styles. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 17, 71-88.

Kahn, P. 1996. Gene hunters close in on elusive prey. Science, 271, 1352-1354.

Kandel, D. 1975. Stages in adolescent involvement in drug use. Science, 190, 912-914.

Kappa calculator. Retrieved October 10, 2009 fromhttp://www.dmi.columbia.edu/ homepages/chuangj/kappa/

Kowalski, K. M. 1999. How peer pressure can affect you. Current Health 2, 26 (1); 6. Stamford.

Kumpfer, K. L. & Turner, C. W. 1990-1991. The social ecology model of adolescent substance abuse: Implications for prevention. International Journal of the Addictions,25, 435-463.

Laman Web Rasmi Agensi Antidadah Kebangsaan(2015). Retrieved on April 15, 2015 from http://www.adk.gov.my/html/laporandadah/2013/Buku%20Maklumat%20Dadah%202013.pdf.

Levoy, D., Rivinus, T. M., Matzko, M., & McGuire, J. 1991. Children in search of a diagnosis: Chronic trauma disorder of childhood. In T. M Rivinus (Ed), Children of chemically dependent parents: Multiperspectives from the cutting edge (pp. 153-170). New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Liu, T. K. 2008. Harm reduction is the way to go for tackling drug addiction. Retrieved November 1, 2008 from http:// colour-blind.org/wordpress/?p=728

Luthar, S. S., & Ziegler, E. 1991. Vulnerability and competence: a review of the research on resilience in childhood. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 6-22.

Maslow, A. 1954. Motivation and Emotion. New York: Harper & Row.

Miles, M.B.,& Huberman, A.M. 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Miller, D. 1986. Attack on the self: Adolescent behavioural disturbances and their treatment. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Minty, B. 1988. Public care or distorted family relationships: The antecedents of violent crime. Howard Journal, 27, 172-187.

Miranne, A. 1979. Marijuana use and achievement orientation of college students. Journal of Health Social Behavior, 20, 194-199.

Moos, R. 2001. The Family Environment Scale: An Annotated Bibliography (3rd ed.). (References between 1994 and 2000). Palo Alto, CA: Center for Health Care Evaluation, Stanford University, and VA Health Care System.

Muisener, P. 1994. Understanding and Treating Adolescent substance Abuse. USA: Sage Publications.

Neuman, W.L. 2003. Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (5th ed.). USA: Pearson Education.

Nowinski, J. 1990. Substance abuse in adolescents and young adults: A guide to treatment. New York: Norton.

O’Connell, D. F. 1989. Treating the high risk adolescent: A survey of effective programmes and interventions. In P. B. Henry (Ed.), Practical approaches in treating adolescent chemical dependency: A guide to clinical assessment and intervention (pp. 40-69). New York: Haworth.

Parker, H., Adrige, J. & Measham, F. 1998. Illegal Leisure: The Normalisation of Adolescent Recreational Drug Use.London: Routledge.

Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Ramsey, E.1989.A developmental perspective on antisocial behaviour.American Psychologist, 44, 329-335.

Pattison, E. M., & Kaufman, E. 1982.The alcoholism syndrome: Definitions and models. In E. M.Pattison & Kaufman (Eds.), Encyclopedic handbook of alcoholism (p. 13).

Petratits, J., Flay, B. B., & Miller, T. Q. 1995. Reviewing theories of adolescent substance use: Organizing pieces in the puzzle. Psychology Bulletin.117; 67-86.

Pickens, R., & Svikis, D. 1986.Use of twin method in the study of vulnerability to drug abuse. In M. C. Vraude & H. M. Chau (Eds.), Genetic and biological markers in drug abuse and alcoholism (NIDA Research Monograph No. 66). Washington DC: Government Printing Office.

Raghu, A. 2012, May 2. Malaysia mosques a source of hope for heroin addicts. Reuters. Retrived April 15 from http://www.havocscope.com/number-of-drug-addicts-in-malaysia-in-2012/.

RedOrbit News. (2005, September 5). New strategy to treat drug abuse. Retrieved March 8, 2007 from http://www.redorbit.com/news/display/?id=230283.

Reilly, D. M. 1992. Drug-abusing families: Intrafamilial dynamics and brief triphasic treatment. In E. Kaufman & P. Kaufman (Eds.), Family theory of drug and alcohol abuse (pp. 105-119). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Richardson, G. E., Neiger, B. L., Jensen, S., & Kumpfer, K. L. (1990). The resiliency model. Health Education, 21, 33-39.

Rinsley, D. B. 1988. The dipsas revisited: Comments on addiction and personality. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 5, 1-7.

Sarrel, L. J., & Sarrel, P. M. 1990. Sexual unfolding in adolescents. In M. Sugar (Ed.), Atypical adolescence and sexuality (pp. 18-43). New York: Norton.

Schiff, M. M., & Cavaiola, A. A. 1989. Adolescents at risk for chemical dependency: Identification and prevention issues. In P. B. Henry (Ed.), Practical approaches in treating adolescent chemical dependency: A guide to clinical assessment and intervention (pp. 25-47). New York: Haworth.

Schlegel, R., & Sanborn, M. 1979. Religious affiliation and adolescent drinking. Journal of Study of Alcohol, 40, 693-703.

Schuckit, M. A. 1986. Etiological theories on alcoholism. In N. J. Estes & M. E. Heinemann (eds.), Alcoholism: Development, consequences, and interventions (3rd ed.). (pp 15-30). St Louise, MO: C. V. Mosby.

Shilts, L. 1991. The relationship of early adolescent substance use to extracurricular activities, peer influence, and personal attitudes. Adolescence, 26, 613-617.

Skagen,R., & Fisher. D.G. 1989. Substance use among high school students in relation to school characteristics. Addictive Behaviours, 14, 129-138.

Slaght, E., Lyman, S., & Lyman, S. 2004. Promoting healthy lifestyles as a biopsychosocial approach to addiction counselling. Journal of Alcohol & Drug Education [online], 48 (2),5-12.

Stoker, A., & Swadi, H. 1990. Perceived family relationships in drug abusing adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 25, 293–297.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. World Drug Report 2012. Retrieved from http://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/WDR2012/WDR_2012_web_small.pdf.

Valiant, G. 1983. The natural history of alcoholism: Causes, patterns and paths to recovery. Cambridge, M. A.: Harvard University Press.

Werner, E. E., &Smith, R. S. 1992. Overcoming the odds: High-risk children from birth to adulthood. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.