Dr Mohammad Israr Khan


Entrepreneurship is an embedded agent of change in the products and processes as well as in the mode and relations of production. Thereby, it becomes not only a part of labour exploitation as believed in Marxist tradition but also a liberator of that exploitation a la Schumpeter; via destruction of subjugating structures by more equalitarian constructs like the rise of a state-entrepreneurship or a movement towards trustification. Based on literature survey and observations, this paper discusses entrepreneurship, especially the women entrepreneurship, within the context of the social, economic, and policy environment of an economy which shapes the change as well as the status quo. That the reality of women entrepreneurship is a phenomenon constrained by many factors is a truism in the given existential environment of most of the developing economies. More so in the South Asian context. It is, accordingly, hypothesised that women entrepreneurship (EW) is an Under-Root outcome (√EW) in the developing world. The paper ends with a positive assertion that women entrepreneurship, though now an under root (√EW) variable, can exponentially add to economic growth, development, gender equality, and women empowerment provided that the female acumen is freed from the restrictively gendered environment on the one hand and an enabling affirmation is imbibed into the social, economic, and policy environment on the other.


Creative Destruction; Destructive Creation; Entrepreneurship; Ideology; Policy Context; Proxy Entrepreneurship; Social and Economic Environment; Subordinate Entrepreneurship; Women Empowerment.

Full Text:



Aaltio, I. (2008). Entrepreneurship in Organization - Gender and Social capital. In Women Entrepreneurship and Social Capital. Copenhagen: Business School Press.

Abbas, S. M. (2012). Women of Islamic Faith in Trade and Commerce: An Economic Sociological Study. VSRD - IJBMR, 2(3), 102-13.

Adams, J. (2005). The Rule of the Father. In C. Comic, P. S. Gorski, & D. M. Trubek (Eds.), Max Weber's Economy and Society: A Critical Companion (pp. 237-66). Stanford: Stanford University press

Afrin, S., Islam, N., & Ahmed, S. U. (2008). Multivariate Model of Micro Credit and Rural Development Entrepreneurship in Bangladesh. International Journal of Business and Management, 3(8), 169-85.

Agrawal, R. (2015 February 23). FIWE Federation of Indian Women. Retrieved from www.fiwe.org: http://fiwe.org/President-Message.html

Ahl, H. (2004). The Scientific Reproduction of Gender Inequality. A Discourse Analysis of Research Texts on Women's Entrepreneurship. Liber, Malmo.

Ahl, H. (2007). Sex Business in the Toy Store: A Narrative Analysis of A Teaching Case. Journal of Business Venturing, 22 (2007), 673-93.

Ahl, H. (September 2006). Why Research on Women Entrepreneurship Needs New Directions. Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, 595-621.

Anonuevo, C. M. (Ed.). (1995). Women, Education and Empowerment: Pathways towards Autonomy (Vol. UIE 5). Hamburg: UNESCO Institute for Education

Appadurai, R. (2004). The Capacity to Aspire: Culture and The Terms of Recognition. in Culture and Public Action; edited by Vijyendra Rao and Micheal Walton, 59-84, Palo Alto CA: Stanford University Press. [Quoted in WDR, 2015. Washington: World Bank. 32].

Arrow, K. (1973). The Theory of Discrimination. In O. Ashenfelter, & A. Rees, Discrimination in Labor Markets. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.

Azad, R., & Das, A. (2015, January 10). Has Globalization Flattened the Philips Curve? Economic & Political Weekly, L(2), 42-8.

BABALOLA, S. S. (2009, November). Women Entrepreneurial Innovation Behavior: The Role of Psychological Capital. International Journal of Business and Management, 4(11), 184-92

Bain, J. S. (1956). Barriers to New Competition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Ballard, R., & Steyn, M. (2013). Diversity and Small Town Spaces in Post-Apartheid South Africa: An Introduction. Diversity, 15(2), 1-6.

Bandewar, S. (2003, May 24). Abortion Services and Providers' Perceptions. Economic & Political Weekly, XXXVIII(No. 21), 2075-81.

Baum, J. R., & Locke, E. A. (2004). The Relationship of Entrepreneurial Traits, Skills, and Motivations to Subsequent Venture Growth. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(4), 587-98.

Baumol, W. J. (1990). Entrepreneurship: Productive, Unproductive and Destructive. Journal of Political Economy, 98(No. 5), 893-921.

Baumol, W. J. (2002). The Free Market Innovation machine: Analyzing the Growth Miracle of Capitalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Becker, G. (1971). The Economics of Discrimination. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bhagwati, J. N. (1982). Directly-Unproductive Profit Seeking Activities. Journal of Political Economy 90, 988-1002.

Bogenhold, D., & Fachinger, U. (2013). Rationality of Self-Employment: Do Female and Male Entrepreneurs Differ? Journal of Business and Finance, 1(2), 42-62

Bruni, A., Gheradi, S., & Poggio, S. (2004). Doing Gender, Doing Entrepreneurship: An Etnographic Account of Interwined Practices. Gender, Work and Organization, 11, 406-29.

Carree, M. A., Stel, A. J., Thurik, R., & Wennekers, S. (2002). Economic Development and Business Ownership: An Analysis Using Data of 23 OECD Countries in the Period 1976-96. Small Business Economics, 19, 271-90.

Caves, R. E., & Peter, M. E. (1977, May). From Entry Barriers to Mobility Barriers: Conjectural Decisions and Contrived Deterrences to New Competition. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 91(2), 241-62.

Chen, M. (2013, February 28). All work and No Pay: Recognizing Women's Unpaid Labor in the Global South. In These Times. Retrieved February 25, 2015, from http://inthesetimes.com

Congleton, R. D., Hilman, A. L., & Konrad, K. A. (2008, June 16). Forty Years of Research in Rent Seeking: An Overview. www.tax.mpg.de. Retrieved March 01, 2015, from http://www.tax.mpg.de

Delman, F., & Holmquist, C. (2004). Women's Entrepreneurship: Issues and Policies. 2nd OECD Conference of Ministers' on Promoting Entrepreneurship and Innovation SMEs in A Global Economy: Towards A More Responsible and Inclusive Globalisation, Istanbul, Turkey.

Djankov, S., Porta, R. L., Lopez-de-Silanes, F., & Shleifer, A. (2007). The Regulation of Entry. Quarterly Journal of Economics 117 (February 2002), pp. 1-34. In G. M. Meier, & J. E. Rauch, Leadig Issues in Economic Development (8th edn) (pp. 510-20). New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Dreze, J., & Sen, A. (1995). India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity. New Delhi: Oxford India Press.

Drucker, P. F. (1985). Innovation and Entrepreneurship. New York: Harper.

Ebner, A. (2006, September). Schumpeterian Entrepreneurship Revisited: Historical Specificity and the Phases of Capitalist Development. Journal of the History of Economic Thought, 28(3), 315-32

Evans, P. B. (2007). The State as Problem and Solution: Predation, Embedded Autonomy and Structural Change. In G. M. Meier, & J. E. Rauch, Leading Issues in Economic Development (8th edn) (pp. 541-59). New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Faltholm, Y., Abrahamsson, L., & Kallhammer, E. (2010). Academic Entrepreneurship - Gender Discourse and Ghettos. Journal of Technology, Management & Innovation, 5(1), 51-63.

Freire, P. (1970). The Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Seabury: New York.

Frese, M., & Gielnik, M. M. (2014). The Psychology of Entrepreneurship. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1, 413-38.

Fukuyama, F. (2001). Culture and Economic Development: Cultural Concerns. In International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (pp. 3130-34). Amsterdam et al.: Elsevier.

Gaiotti, E. (2010, March). Has Globalization Changed the Philips Curve? Firm Level Evidence on the Effects of Activity on Prices. International Journal of Central banking, 51-84.

Gnyawali, D. R., & Fogel, D. S. (1994). Environments for Entrepreneurship Development: Key Dimensions and Research Implications. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Summer, 1994, 43-62.

Godwin, L. N., Steven, C. E., & Brenner, N. L. (2006). Forced to Play by the Rules? Theorizing How Mixed-Sex Founding Teams Benefit Women Entrepreneurship in Male-Dominated Contexts. Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, September, 642.

Grossman, G. M., & Helpman, E. (1991). Innovation and Growth in the Global Economy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Habib, M. W., Rani, N. N., & Haque, T. (2005). Factors Affecting Women Entrepreneurship in India: A Multivariate Analysis. Journal of Business Studies, XXVI(1), 249-58.

Hagedoorn, J. (1996). Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Schumpeter Revisited. Industrial and Corporate Change, 5(3), 883-96.

Hardoon, D. (2015, January 19). Wealth: Having It All and Wanting More (Oxfam Issue Briefing).

Hofstede, G. (1994). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival. London: Harper Collins.

Idialu, E. E. (2012). The Inhuman Treatment of Widows in African Communities. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, 4(11), 6-11.

Ikpe, I., Mat, N., & Razak, R. C. (2011). Attributes, Environmental Factors and Women Entrepreneurship: A Literature Review. Asian Social Science, 7(9), 124-30.

Kabeer, N. (2008). Paid Work, Women's Empowerment and Gender Justice: Critical Pathways of Social Change. Pathways Working Paper 3, Brighton: IDS.

Kabeer, N. (2012). Women's Economic Empowerment and Inclusive Growth: Labor Markets and Enterprise Development. SIG Working Paper 1.

Katz, J. A. (1991). The Institution and Infrastructure of Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 15(3), 85-102.

Kaur, G. P., & Singh, S. (2013). Women Entrepreneurs in India: Problems and Prospects. Third Front A Jurnal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 1(1).

Keith, M., & Pile, S. (2009). Introduction Part 1: The Politics of Place. In M. Keith, & S. Pile (Eds.), Place and the Politics of Identity. London and New York: Routledge.

Khalil, E. L. (2002). John Dewey, Embodied Cognition and Economic Theory: Towards A theory of Entrepreneurship.

Khan, M. I. (2015a). Women Entrepreneurship in South Asia: A Critique of Social and Economic Environment. JANAK: A Journal of Humanities, 1(1), 130-37.

Khan, M. I. (2015b). Women Empowerment, Entrepreneurship, and Capacity Development. Journal for Studies in Management and Planning, 1(9), 43-56. Retrieved October 11, 2015, from https://edupediapublications.org/journals/index.php/JSMaP/article/view/2916/2785

Kirzner, I. M. (1973). Competition and Entrepreneurship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kuttner, K., & Robinson, T. (2008). Understanding the Flattening Philips Curve. Research Discussion Paper - 5. Economic Research department, Reserve Bank of Australia.

Kuzilwa, J. (2005). The Role of Credit for Small Business: A Study of the National Entrepreneurship Development Fund in Tanzania. The Journal of Entrepreneurship, 14(2), 131-61.

Lazo, L. (1995). Some Reflections on the Empowerment of Women. In C. Medel-Anonuevo (Ed.), Women, Education and Empowerment: Pathways towards Autonomy (pp. 23-38). Hamburg: UNESCO Institute for Education.

Legerski, E. M., & Cornwall, M. (2010). Working-Class Job Loss, Gender, and the Negotiation of Household Labor. Gender & Society, 24(4), 447-74.

Lewis, P. (2006). The Quest for Invisibility: Female Entrepreneurs and the Masculine Norm of Entrepreneurship. Gender, Work and Organization, 13, 453-69.

Longowitz, N., & Minniti, M. (2007, May). The Entrepreneurial Propensity of Women. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(3), 341-64.

Malhotra, A., Schuler, S. R., & Boender, C. (2002, 28 June). Measuring Women Empowerment as A Variable in International Development (Vol. Background Paper prepared for the World Bank Workshop on Poverty and Gender: New Perspectives).

Marlow, S., & Patton, D. (2005). All Credit to Men? Entrepreneurship, Finance and Gender. Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, November, 717-35.

Marx, K. (1887). Capital:A Critique of Political Economy (Vol. 1). (F. Engels, Ed.) Moscow, USSR: Progress Publishers.

Maslow, A. (1986). Towards A Psychology of Being. Von Nostrand: Princeton.

McGraith, R. G. (1999). Falling Forward: Real Options Reasoning and Entrepreneurial Failure. Academy of Management Review, 24(1), 13-30.

McGregor, J., & Tweed, D. (2002). Profiling A New Generation of Female Small Business Owners in New Zealand: Networking, Mentoring and Growth. Gender, Work and Organization, 9, 420-38.

Mohindra, K. S., Haddad, S., & Narayana, D. (2012). Debt, Shame, and Survival: Becoming and Living as Widows in Rural Kerala, India. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 12:28, 1-13.

MoMSME. (2012). MSME Annual Report 2011-12. New Delhi: Ministry of MSME, Government of India.

Nadiri, I. (1993). Innovations and Technological Spillovers. Working Paper 423, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Nussbaum, M. C. (1999). Sex and Social Justice. New York: Oxford University Press.

OECD. (2011). Report on the Gender Initiative: Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship. Paris: Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level, 25-26 May, 2011.

OECD. (2012). Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship: Final Report to the MCM 2012 [C/MIN(2012) 5]. Paris: OECDC.

Ogbor, J. O. (2000). Mythicizing and Reification in Entrepreneurial Discourse: Ideology-Critique of Entrepreneurial Studies. Journal of Management Studies, 37(5), 605-35.

Orhan, M., & Scott, D. (2001). Why Women Enter into Entrepreneurship: An Explanatory Model. Women in Management Review, 16(5), 232-47.

Oxaal, Z., & Baden, S. (October, 1997). Gender and Development: Definitions, Approaches and Implications for Policy (Vols. BRIDGE Development-Gender Report No. 40). Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.

Patel, V. (2003). Political Economy of Missing Girls in India. Presented at Two-day Workshop on 30-31 October 2003 on Missing Girls in India: Science, Gender Relations, and the Political Economy of Emotions, organised by Delhi School of Economics. New Delhi. Retrieved Feb. 25, 2015, from http://www.feministagenda.org.au/missing%20girls1.htm

Pettersson, K. (2004). Masculine Entrepreneurship- the Gnosjo in A Feminist Perspective. In D. Hjorth, & C. Steyaert (Eds.), Narrative and Discursive Approaches in Entrepreneurship (pp. 177-93). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Praag, C. M., & Versloot, P. H. (2007, September). What is the Value of Entrepreneurship? A Review of Recent Research. Small Business Economics.

Rahman, A. (1999). Micro-Credit Initiatives for Equitable and Sustainable Development: Who Pays? World Development, 27(1), 67-82.

Rauch, A., & Frese, M. (2000). Psychological Approaches to Entrepreneurial Success: A General Model and An Overview of Findings. In C. L. Cooper, & I. T. Robertson (Eds.), International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (pp. 101-42). Chichester: Wiley.

Rider, C. (1995). An Introduction to Economic History. Cincinnati: South-Western College.

Riggs, F. (1991). Public Administration: A Comparativist Framework. Public Administration Review, 51(6), 473-77.

Romer, P. M. (1986). Increasing Returns and Long Run Growth. Journal of Political Economy, 94, 1002-37.

Romer, P. M. (1990). Endogenous Technological Change. Journal of Political Economy, 98, S71-S102.

Sainath, P. (1996). Everybody Loves A Good Drought. New Delhi: Penguin.

Samuelson, R. J. (2015, February 17). Light bulbs vs. the Internet. The Hindu (Daily, Noida/Delhi edition), p. 7.

Schumpeter, J. A. (1934). The Theory of Economic Development. London: Oxford University Press.

Schumpeter, J. A. (1942 [2003]). Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. Tayler & Francis e-Library. Retrieved February 19, 2015, from http://digamo.free.fr/capisoc.pdf

Sen, A. K. (1973). On Economic Inequality. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Sen, G. (1998). Empowerment as An Approach to Poverty, Human Development Report, Background Paper, 1997. In BRAC, ICDDRB, Joint Research Project Working Paper 28(1). New York.

Shah, H. (2013). Creating An Enabling Environment for Women's Entrepreneurship in India. New Delhi: ESCAP, South and South West Asia Office.

Shastri, R. K., & Sinha, A. (2010). The Socio-Cultural and Economic Effect on the Development of Women Entrepreneurs (with special reference to India). Asian Journal of Management, 2(2), 30-4.

Singh, S. (2011). Experiencing and Learning from Entrepreneurial Failure. (Ph.D. Thesis) The University of Waikato: Waikato. Retrieved Feb, 26.2015, from http://researchcommons.waikato.ac.nz

Smith, A. (1776). An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (ed.) Campbell, Rh; AS Skinner and WB Todd. Oxford: Clarendon.

Solow, R. (1956). A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth. Quarterly Journal of Economics 70, 65-94. In Sen, A. K. (ed). Growth Economics. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 161-92.

Thompson, E. A. (1963). The Making of the English Working Class. London: Gollancz.

Thuis, S., & Dortmund, T. D. (2010). Promoting Entrepreneurial Spirit - Case Studies. available at Website. Retrieved Feb. 26, 2015, from http://www.rpknis.rs

Ullah, M. M., Mahmud, T. B., & Yousuf, F. (2013). Women Entrepreneurship: Islamic Perspective. European Journal of Business and Management, 5(11).

UN. (2001). Guidelines on Women's Empowerment for the UN Resident Coordinator System. New York: United Nations: Secretariate of the UN Inter-Agency Task Force on the Implementation of the ICPD Program of Action.

UNDP. (1995). Human Development Report, 1995. New York: Oxford University Press.

UNIDO. (2003). A Path out of Poverty: Developing Rural and Women Entrepreneurship. Vienna: UNIDO.

Weber, M. (1930 [2005]). The Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism. (T. Parsons, Trans.) Taylor and Francis e-Library. Retrieved Feb. 26, 2015, from http://www.d.umn.edu

Wong, P. K., Ho, Y. P., & Autio, E. (2005). Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth: Evidence from GEM Data. Small Business Economics, 24, 335-50.

World Bank. (2012). World Development Report: Gender Equality and Develpoment, 2012. Washington: World Bank.

World Bank. (2015). World Development Report (WDR): 2015. Washington DC: World Bank.


  • There are currently no refbacks.